Scientific publications on FDM & the Typaldos method
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Published articles in the AAO Journal 1994 and 1995
In 1994 and 1995 Stephen Typaldos, D.O. published the following two articles in the Journal of the American Academy of Osteopathy, describing for the first time the Fascial Distortion Model (FDM). Taking into consideration the current level of knowledge on the subject matter, they are to be regarded as incomplete. A further article by Typaldos addresses continuum theory and continuum distortion.
What are fasciae?
A fascia (from the Latin for „band “, “bundle” or “cluster”) is a thin, tendon-like covering of connective tissue that surrounds muscles, groups of muscles and sometimes entire segments of a body. Fasciae are primarily made of tight, intersecting bundles of collagen fibers as well as elastin, lending strength and elasticity to the entire muscular system.
Beyond that, fasciae shape the muscle and serve as shock absorbers for the body in motion. They also play an important part in a body’s own defence mechanisms when battling viruses and infections as well as building the core layer for tissue recovery after injuries. There are 3 types of fasciae – superficial, deep and visceral fasciae.
Superficial fasciae are located within the subcutis and largely consist of loose connective as well as adipose or fatty tissue. They store water and fat, act as a kind of gateway for lymph, nerves and blood vessels and serve as buffers and shock absorbers. Deep fasciae are fibrous layers and strands of connective tissue that interpenetrate and surround musles, bones, blood vessels and nerve tracts. This network of tissue presents itself in different ways – depending on the particular circumstances and activity – as aponeuroses, large, flat fasciae, ligaments, tendons or joint capsules.
The third group, the so-called visceral fasciae (visceral – pertaining to the intestinal tract), cover all internal organs with a double layer of connective tissue membranes. By building a kind of “wrap” around them, they provide lubrication for the organs. Fasciae generally occur as a dynamic tissue, they are convertible and adaptable. Superficial fasciae, for example, can stretch considerably due to their high elasticity, which is essential for ordinary or pregnancy-induced weight gain. Deep fasciae are less malleable but tend to be equipped with numerous sensory receptors that transmit pain signals or changes in pressure, vibration and temperature and indicate chemical changes in the body. They are also able to react to mechanical or chemical stimuli with muscle contraction or relaxation as well as a gradual regrouping of their own internal structure.